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Influenza Literature - Latest PubMed Articles

Overview of latest articles and publications on ebola in PubMed. PubMed is a service of the US National Library of Medicine that includes over 18 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals.


  • Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of influenza B viruses isolated from pediatric inpatients in South Korea during the 2011-2012 winter season.
    Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of influenza B viruses isolated from pediatric inpatients in South Korea during the 2011-2012 winter season. [Journal Article]J Gen Virol 2017 Nov 23.JGNam JH, Song EJ, Song D, et al. Influenza B virus remains a major cause of respiratory diseases worldwide. Because of limited epidemiological and genetic data, the local and global transmission patterns of influenza B virus are not f...Influenza B virus remains a major cause of respiratory diseases worldwide. Because of limited epidemiological and genetic data, the local and global transmission patterns of influenza B virus are not fully understood. Here we report the molecular and phylogenetic characterization of 163 influenza B virus isolates from pediatric inpatients with influenza-like illness in the winter of 2011-2012 in South Korea. Analysis of haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of the influenza B isolates revealed that both B/Victoria (62 %) and B/Yamagata lineages (38 %) co-circulated during that influenza season, and a considerable number of the isolates carried several amino acid substitutions in the four major antigenic epitopes of their haemagglutinin protein.

  • A brief summary of the epidemiology and genetic relatedness of avian influenza H9N2 virus in birds and mammals in the Middle East and North Africa.
    A brief summary of the epidemiology and genetic relatedness of avian influenza H9N2 virus in birds and mammals in the Middle East and North Africa. [Journal Article]Epidemiol Infect 2017 Nov 23.:1-14.EINagy A, Mettenleiter TC, Abdelwhab EM H9N2 is the most widespread avian influenza virus subtype in poultry worldwide. It infects a broad spectrum of host species including birds and mammals. Infections in poultry and humans vary from silen...H9N2 is the most widespread avian influenza virus subtype in poultry worldwide. It infects a broad spectrum of host species including birds and mammals. Infections in poultry and humans vary from silent to fatal. Importantly, all AIV, which are fatal in humans (e.g. H5N1, H7N9) acquired their 'internal' gene segments from H9N2 viruses. Although H9N2 is endemic in the Middle East (ME) and North Africa since the late 1990s, little is known about its epidemiology and genetics on a regional level. In this review, we summarised the epidemiological situation of H9N2 in poultry and mammals in Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Bahrain, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Palestine, Israel, Syria, Lebanon, Turkey, Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. The virus has been isolated from humans in Egypt and serosurveys indicated widespread infection particularly among poultry workers and pigs in some countries. Some isolates replicated well in experimentally inoculated dogs, mice, hamsters and ferrets. Insufficient protection of immunised poultry was frequently reported most likely due to concurrent viral or bacterial infections and antigenic drift of the field viruses from outdated vaccine strains. Genetic analysis indicated several distinct phylogroups including a panzootic genotype in the Asian and African parts of the ME, which may be useful for the development of vaccines. The extensive circulation of H9N2 for about 20 years in this region where the H5N1 virus is also endemic in some countries, poses a serious public health threat. Regional surveillance and control strategy are highly recommended.

  • Novel comprehensive multidimensional liquid chromatography approach for elucidation of the microbosphere of shikimate-producing Escherichia coli SP1.1/pKD15.071 strain.
    Novel comprehensive multidimensional liquid chromatography approach for elucidation of the microbosphere of shikimate-producing Escherichia coli SP1.1/pKD15.071 strain. [Journal Article]Anal Bioanal Chem 2017 Nov 22.ABCacciola F, Mangraviti D, Rigano F, et al. Shikimic acid is a intermediate of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis and the preferred starting material for production of the most commonly prescribed anti-influenza drug, Tamiflu. Its six-membered car...Shikimic acid is a intermediate of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis and the preferred starting material for production of the most commonly prescribed anti-influenza drug, Tamiflu. Its six-membered carbocyclic ring is adorned with several chiral centers and various functionalities, making shikimic acid a valuable chiral synthon. When microbially-produced, in addition to shikimic acid, numerous other metabolites are exported out of the cytoplasm and accumulate in the culture medium. This extracellular matrix of metabolites is referred to as the microbosphere. Due to the high sample complexity, in this study, the microbosphere of shikimate-producing Escherichia coli SP1.1/pKD15.071 was analyzed by liquid chromatography and comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array and mass spectrometry detection. GC analysis of the trimethylsilyl derivatives was also carried out in order to support the elucidation of the selected metabolites in the microbosphere. The elucidation of the metabolic fraction of this bacterial strain might be of valid aid for improving, through genetic changes, the concentration and yield of shikimic acid synthesized from glucose. Graphical abstract.

  • Early vaccination protects against childhood leukemia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Early vaccination protects against childhood leukemia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. [Journal Article]Sci Rep 2017 Nov 22; 7(1):15986.SRMorra ME, Kien ND, Elmaraezy A, et al. Leukemia is the most commonly diagnosed childhood cancer, although its etiology is still largely unknown. Growing evidence supports a role for infection in the etiology of acute lymphocytic leukemia (A...Leukemia is the most commonly diagnosed childhood cancer, although its etiology is still largely unknown. Growing evidence supports a role for infection in the etiology of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and the involvement of the immune system suggests that vaccination may also play a role. However, the findings presented in the published literature are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a PRISMA systematic review and meta-analysis. 14 studies were identified and meta-analyzed. Vaccinations studied comprised Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, Triple vaccine, Hepatitis B vaccine (HBV), Polio, Measles, Rubella, Mumps, trivalent MMR vaccine and Haemophilus influenza type B (HiB) vaccine. We observed a protective association between any vaccination in the first year of life and risk of childhood leukemia (summary odds ratio (OR) 0.58 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.36-0.91]). When individual vaccines were analysed, some evidence of an association was seen only for BCG (summary OR 0.73 [95% CI 0.50-1.08]). In conclusion, early vaccination appears to be associated with a reduced risk of childhood leukemia. This finding may be underpinned by the association observed for BCG. Given the relatively imprecise nature of the results of this meta-analysis, our findings should be interpreted cautiously and replicated in future studies.

  • Comparison of the Efficacy of N9 Neuraminidase-specific Monoclonal Antibodies against Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infection.
    Comparison of the Efficacy of N9 Neuraminidase-specific Monoclonal Antibodies against Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infection. [Journal Article]J Virol 2017 Nov 22.JVWan H, Qi L, Gao J, et al. The fifth wave of A(H7N9) virus infection in China from 2016 to 2017 caused great concern due to the large number of individuals infected, the isolation of drug-resistant viruses and emergence of highl...The fifth wave of A(H7N9) virus infection in China from 2016 to 2017 caused great concern due to the large number of individuals infected, the isolation of drug-resistant viruses and emergence of highly pathogenic strains. Antibodies against neuraminidase (NA) provide added benefit to hemagglutinin-specific immunity and may be an important contributor to the effectiveness of A(H7N9) vaccines. We generated a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to identify antigenic domains on NA of the novel A(H7N9) virus and compared their functional properties. Two major antigenic regions, i.e., the 250-loop and 370/400/430-loop domains, were identified. MAbs 1E8, 2F6, 10F4 and 11B2, which recognize these 2 antigenic domains, were characterized in depth. These 4 MAbs differ in ability to inhibit cleavage of small and large substrates (MU-NANA and fetuin, respectively) in NA inhibition assays. 1E8 and 11B2 did not inhibit NA cleavage of either MU-NANA or fetuin, 2F6 inhibited cleavage of fetuin alone, whereas 10F4 inhibited cleavage of both substrates. All 4 MAbs reduced the in vitro spread of viruses carrying either the wild-type N9 or N9 with antiviral-resistant mutations, but to different degrees. These MAbs have different in vivo effectiveness, 10F4 was the most effective in protecting mice against challenge with A(H7N9) virus, 2F6 was less effective and 11B2 failed to protect BALB/c mice at the doses tested. Our study confirms that NA-specific antibodies can protect against A(H7N9) infection, and suggests that in vitro properties can be used to rank antibodies with therapeutic potential.IMPORTANCE The novel A(H7N9) viruses that emerged in China in 2013 continue to infect humans, with a high fatality rate. The most recent outbreak resulted in larger number of human cases than previous epidemic waves. Due to the absence of a licensed vaccine and emergence of drug-resistant viruses, there is a need to develop alternative approaches to prevent or treat A(H7N9) infection. We have made a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for neuraminidase (NA) of A(H7N9) viruses, some of these MAbs are effective in inhibiting viruses that are resistant to antivirals used to treat A(H7N9) patients. Binding avidity, inhibition of NA activity and plaque formation correlated with the effectiveness of these MAbs to protect mice against lethal A(H7N9) virus challenge. This study identifies in vitro measures that can be used to predict the in vivo efficacy of NA-specific antibodies, providing a way to select MAbs for further therapeutic development.

  • Ubiquitination of the Cytoplasmic Domain of Influenza A Virus M2 Protein is Crucial for Production of Infectious Virus Particles.
    Ubiquitination of the Cytoplasmic Domain of Influenza A Virus M2 Protein is Crucial for Production of Infectious Virus Particles. [Journal Article]J Virol 2017 Nov 22.JVSu WC, Yu WY, Huang SH, et al. Virus replication is mediated by interactions between virus and host. Here, we demonstrate that influenza A virus membrane protein 2 (M2) can be ubiquitinated. The lysine residue at position 78, which ...Virus replication is mediated by interactions between virus and host. Here, we demonstrate that influenza A virus membrane protein 2 (M2) can be ubiquitinated. The lysine residue at position 78, which is located in the cytoplasmic domain of M2, is essential for M2 ubiquitination. An M2-K78R (Lys78→Arg78) mutant, which produces ubiquitination-deficient M2, showed a severe defect in production of infectious virus particles. M2-K78R mutant progeny contained more HA proteins, less viral RNAs and less internal viral proteins, including M1 and NP, than the wild-type virus. Furthermore, most of the M2-K78R mutant viral particles lacked viral ribonucleoproteins upon examination under electron microscopy and exhibited slightly lower densities. We also found that mutant M2 colocalized with M1 protein to a lesser extent than for wild-type virus. These findings may account for the reduced incorporation of viral ribonucleoprotein into virions. By blocking the second round of virus infection, we showed that the M2 ubiquitination-defective mutant exhibited normal level of virus replication during the first round of infection, thereby proving that M2 ubiquitination is involved in the virus production step. Finally, we found that M2-K78R mutant virus induced autophagy and apoptosis earlier than wild-type virus. Collectively, these results suggest that M2 ubiquitination plays an important role in infectious virus production by coordinating efficient packaging of the viral genome into virus particles and timing of viral-induced cell death.IMPORTANCE Annual epidemics and recurring pandemics of influenza viruses represent a very high global health and economic burden. Influenza virus M2 protein has been extensively studied for its important roles in virus replication, particularly in viral entry and release. Rimantadine, one of the most commonly used antiviral drugs, binds to the channel lumen near the N-terminus of M2 proteins. However, viruses resistant to Rimantadine have emerged. M2 undergoes several posttranslational modifications, such as phosphorylation and palmitoylation. Here, we reveal that ubiquitination mediates the functional role of M2. A ubiquitination-deficient M2 mutant predominately produced virus particles either lacking viral ribonucleoproteins or containing smaller amounts of internal viral components, resulting in lower infectivity. Our findings offer insights into the mechanism of influenza virus morphogenesis, particularly the functional role of M1-M2 interactions in viral particle assembly, and can be applied to the development of new influenza therapies.

  • Antibodies directed towards neuraminidase N1 control disease in a mouse model of influenza.
    Antibodies directed towards neuraminidase N1 control disease in a mouse model of influenza. [Journal Article]J Virol 2017 Nov 22.JVJob ER, Schotsaert M, Ibañez LI, et al. There is increasing evidence to suggest that antibodies directed towards influenza A virus (IAV) neuraminidase (NA) are an important correlate of protection against influenza in humans. Moreover, the p...There is increasing evidence to suggest that antibodies directed towards influenza A virus (IAV) neuraminidase (NA) are an important correlate of protection against influenza in humans. Moreover, the potential of NA-specific antibodies to provide broader protection than conventional hemagglutinin (HA) antibodies has been recognized. Herein, we describe the isolation of two monoclonal antibodies, N1-7D3 and N1-C4, directed towards the N1 NA. N1-7D3 binds to a conserved linear epitope in the membrane distal, carboxy-terminal part of the NA and reacted with the NA of seasonal H1N1 isolates ranging from 1977 till 2007 the 2009 H1N1pdm virus as well as A/Vietnam/1194/04 (H5N1). However, N1-7D3 lacked NA inhibition (NI) activity and the ability to protect BALB/c mice against a lethal challenge with a range of H1N1 viruses. Conversely, N1-C4 bound to a conformational epitope that is conserved between two influenza subtypes, the 2009 H1N1pdm and H5N1 IAV and displayed potent in vitro antiviral activity mediating both NI and plaque size-reduction. Moreover, N1-C4 could provide heterosubtypic protection in BALB/c mice against a lethal challenge with 2009 H1N1pdm or H5N1 virus. Glutamic acid residue 311 in the NA was found to be critical for the NA binding and antiviral activity of monoclonal antibody N1-C4. Our data provide further evidence on cross-protective epitopes within the N1 subtype and highlight the potential of NA as an important target for vaccine and therapeutic approaches.Importance Influenza remains a world-wide burden to public health. As such the development of new and novel vaccines and therapeutics against influenza virus is crucial. Human challenge studies have recently highlighted the importance of antibodies directed towards the viral neuraminidase (NA) as an important correlate of reduced influenza-associated disease severity. Furthermore, there is evidence that anti-NA antibodies can provide broader protection than antibodies towards the viral hemagglutinin. Here we describe the isolation and detailed characterization of two N1 NA-specific monoclonal antibodies. One of these monoclonal antibodies broadly binds N1 type NAs and the second one displays NAI, in vitro and in vivo anti-viral activity against 2009 H1N1pdm and H5N1 influenza viruses. These two new anti-NA antibodies contribute to our understanding of the antigenic properties and protective potential of the influenza NA antigen.

  • Impact of pharmacist intervention on influenza vaccine assessment and documentation in hospitalized psychiatric patients.
    Impact of pharmacist intervention on influenza vaccine assessment and documentation in hospitalized psychiatric patients. [Journal Article]Am J Health Syst Pharm 2017 Dec 01; 74(23 Supplement 4):S90-S94.AJCotugno S, Morrow G, Cooper C, et al. Pharmacist-conducted education of nurses and interventions to ensure completion of influenza vaccine assessments and documentation led to an improved IMM-2 IPFQR compliance rate at the study site.Results of an initiative to improve assessment and documentation of the influenza vaccination status of adult psychiatric inpatients are reported.A prospective quality-improvement study was conducted at a large, tertiary care academic medical center with the aim of improving compliance with the Influenza Immunization (IMM-2) quality measure, which was added to the Inpatient Psychiatric Facility Quality Reporting (IPFQR) program in 2015 and requires assessment and documentation of influenza vaccination status in specified groups of psychiatric inpatients. The primary objective was to improve the IMM-2 IPFQR compliance rate to 100% during the 2015-16 influenza season from a rate of 55% during the 2014-15 influenza season through pharmacist interventions; secondary objectives included analysis of types of pharmacist interventions, rates of influenza vaccination status assessment and ordering, and rates of vaccine refusal by psychiatric disease state.With pharmacist interventions, the IMM-2 IPFQR compliance rate was increased to 99% during the 2015-16 influenza season. Of the 1,413 patients included in the study population, 45% (n = 646) were targeted for pharmacist intervention. Influenza vaccine was ordered for 61% of the study population (n = 867 patients), with an overall refusal rate of 74% (n = 642). Differences in refusal rates by psychiatric diagnosis were not significant.Pharmacist-conducted education of nurses and interventions to ensure completion of influenza vaccine assessments and documentation led to an improved IMM-2 IPFQR compliance rate at the study site.

  • Vaccination coverage in patients affected by chronic diseases: A 2014 cross-sectional study among subjects hospitalized at Bari Policlinico General Hospital.
    Vaccination coverage in patients affected by chronic diseases: A 2014 cross-sectional study among subjects hospitalized at Bari Policlinico General Hospital. [Journal Article]Am J Infect Control 2017 Nov 19.AJGallone MS, Infantino V, Ferorelli D, et al. Subjects affected by at least 1 chronic disease are the target of influenza vaccination strategies because they are at high risk of influenza complications or death. The aim of this cross-sectional stu...Subjects affected by at least 1 chronic disease are the target of influenza vaccination strategies because they are at high risk of influenza complications or death. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to evaluate flu and pneumococcal vaccination coverage (VC) in a sample of patients hospitalized at Bari Policlinico General Hospital (South Italy). According to national public health guidelines, these patients should have been vaccinated at hospital discharge by general practitioners. There were 540 patients involved in the study, and the average age was of 46.9 ± 13.4 years (range, 0-64 years). We assessed the vaccination status of 412 of 540 (76.3%) patients. The overall VC was 22.8% (94/412) for influenza and 7.2% (30/412) for pneumococcal vaccine. Doctor recommendation has a pivotal importance in vaccine acceptance, and recent experiences seem to show a high efficacy of the vaccination offer during hospitalization. This model could be helpful to improve influenza and pneumococcal vaccination offers to patient with underlying chronic conditions.

  • Molecular detection of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses with M genes from human pandemic strains among Nigerian pigs, 2013-2015: implications and associated risk factors.
    Molecular detection of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses with M genes from human pandemic strains among Nigerian pigs, 2013-2015: implications and associated risk factors. [Journal Article]Epidemiol Infect 2017 Nov 23.:1-16.EIAdeola OA, Olugasa BO, Emikpe BO In the post-pandemic period, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus has been detected in swine populations in different parts of the world. This study was conducted to determine the presence and spatial patterns...In the post-pandemic period, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus has been detected in swine populations in different parts of the world. This study was conducted to determine the presence and spatial patterns of this human pandemic virus among Nigerian pigs and identify associated risk factors. Using a two-stage stratified random sampling method, nasal swab specimens were obtained from pigs in Ibadan, Nigeria during the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 influenza seasons, and the virus was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Purified RT-PCR products were sequenced in both directions, and sequences were aligned using MUSCLE. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted in MEGA6. Purely spatial scan statistics and a spatial lag regression model were used to identify spatial clusters and associated risk factors. The virus was detected in both seasons, with an overall prevalence of 8·7%. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the M genes were similar to those of pandemic strains which circulated in humans prior to and during the study. Cluster analysis revealed a significant primary spatial cluster (RR = 4·71, LLR = 5·66, P = 0·0046), while 'hours spent with pigs (R 2 = 0·90, P = 0·0018)' and 'hours spent with pigs from different farms (R 2 = 0·91, P = 0·0001)' were identified as significant risk factors (P < 0·05). These findings reveal that there is considerable risk of transmission of the pandemic virus, either directly from pig handlers or through fomites, to swine herds in Ibadan, Nigeria. Active circulation of the virus among Nigerian pigs could enhance its reassortment with endemic swine influenza viruses. Campaigns for adoption of biosecurity measures in West African piggeries and abattoirs should be introduced and sustained in order to prevent the emergence of a new influenza epicentre in the sub-region.