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Influenza Literature - Latest PubMed Articles

Overview of latest articles and publications on ebola in PubMed. PubMed is a service of the US National Library of Medicine that includes over 18 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals.


  • INF-λ: A new spotlight in innate immunity against influenza virus infection.
    INF-λ: A new spotlight in innate immunity against influenza virus infection. [Journal Article]Protein Cell 2018 Jan 13.PCSun Y, Jiang J, Tien P, et al. Publisher Full Text

  • The rapid diagnosis of viral respiratory tract infections and its impact on antimicrobial stewardship programs.
    The rapid diagnosis of viral respiratory tract infections and its impact on antimicrobial stewardship programs. [Journal Article]Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Jan 13.EJKeske Ş, Ergönül Ö, Tutucu F, et al. We aimed to describe the potential benefit of new rapid molecular respiratory tests (MRT) in decreasing inappropriate antibiotic use among the inpatients presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI). W...Publisher Full TextWe aimed to describe the potential benefit of new rapid molecular respiratory tests (MRT) in decreasing inappropriate antibiotic use among the inpatients presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI). We included patients from inpatient and outpatient departments who had ILI and performed MRT between 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2016 in a 265-bed private hospital in Istanbul. At the end of 2015, we implemented antimicrobial stewardship including systematic use of MRT. Then, we compared our observations between the year 2015 and the year 2016. We designed the study according to the STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) tool. A U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-cleared multiplexed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system (BioFire FilmArray, Idaho Technology, Salt Lake City, UT) which detects 17 viruses and three bacteria was used for diagnosis. In total, 1317 patients were included; 630 (48%) were inpatients and 569 (43%) were older than 16 years of age. At least one virus was detected in 747 (57%) patients. Rhinovirus/enterovirus, influenza virus, and adenovirus were the most commonly detected. Among hospitalized patients, in children, a significant decrease in antibiotic use (44.5% in 2015 and 28.8% in 2016, p = 0.009) was observed, but in adults, the decrease was not statistically significant (72% in 2015 and 63% in 2016, p = 0.36). The duration of antibiotic use after the detection of virus was significantly decreased in both children and adults (p < 0.001 and p = 0.007, respectively). By using MRT, inappropriate antibiotic use and, also, duration of inappropriate antibiotic use after the detection of virus was significantly decreased. It is time to increase the awareness about the viral etiology in respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and implement MRT in clinical practice.

  • Development of a novel equine influenza virus live-attenuated vaccine.
    Development of a novel equine influenza virus live-attenuated vaccine. [Journal Article]Virology 2018 Jan 11.:76-85.VRodriguez L, Reedy S, Nogales A, et al. H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV) is an important and significant respiratory pathogen of horses. EIV is enzootic in Europe and North America, mainly due to the suboptimal efficacy of current vaccines....Publisher Full TextH3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV) is an important and significant respiratory pathogen of horses. EIV is enzootic in Europe and North America, mainly due to the suboptimal efficacy of current vaccines. We describe, for the first time, the generation of a temperature sensitive (ts) H3N8 EIV live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) using reverse-genetics approaches. Our EIV LAIV was attenuated (att) in vivo and able to induce, upon a single intranasal administration, protection against H3N8 EIV wild-type (WT) challenge in both a mouse model and the natural host, the horse. Notably, since our EIV LAIV was generated using reverse genetics, the vaccine can be easily updated against drifting or emerging strains of EIV using the safety backbone of our EIV LAIV as master donor virus (MDV). These results demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a novel EIV LAIV approach for the prevention and control of currently circulating H3N8 EIVs in horse populations.

  • Identification of novel amino acid residues of influenza virus PA-X that are important for PA-X shutoff activity by using yeast.
    Identification of novel amino acid residues of influenza virus PA-X that are important for PA-X shutoff activity by using yeast. [Journal Article]Virology 2018 Jan 10.:71-75.VOishi K, Yamayoshi S, Kawaoka Y The influenza A virus protein PA-X comprises an N-terminal PA region and a C-terminal PA-X-specific region. PA-X suppresses host gene expression, termed shutoff, via mRNA cleavage. Although the endonuc...Publisher Full TextThe influenza A virus protein PA-X comprises an N-terminal PA region and a C-terminal PA-X-specific region. PA-X suppresses host gene expression, termed shutoff, via mRNA cleavage. Although the endonuclease active site in the N-terminal PA region of PA-X and basic amino acids in the C-terminal PA-X-specific region are known to be important for PA-X shutoff activity, other amino acids may also play a role. Here, we used yeast to identify novel amino acids of PA-X that are important for PA-X shutoff activity. Unlike wild-type PA-X, most PA-X mutants predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, indicating that these mutations decreased the shutoff activity of PA-X by affecting PA-X translocation to the nucleus. Mapping of the identified amino acids onto the N-terminal structure of PA revealed that some of them likely contribute to the formation of the endonuclease active site of PA.

  • The molecular characteristics of avian influenza viruses (H9N2) derived from air samples in live poultry markets.
    The molecular characteristics of avian influenza viruses (H9N2) derived from air samples in live poultry markets. [Journal Article]Infect Genet Evol 2018 Jan 10.IGWu Y, Lin J, Yang S, et al. Live H9N2 AIVs survived in the aerosol of LPMs in Zhongshan City. The aerosol viruses had a close evolutionary relationship with human epidemic strains, indicating that there might be a risk of AIV tra...Publisher Full TextTo study the molecular characteristics of H9N2-subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) isolated from air samples collected in live poultry markets (LPMs) and explore their sequence identities with AIVs that caused human infection.Weekly surveillance of H9N2-subtype AIVs in the air of LPMs was conducted from 2015 to 2016. H9-positive samples were isolated from chicken embryos. Whole genome sequences of the isolated AIVs were obtained through high-throughput sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis and key loci variations of the sequences were further analyzed.A total of 327 aerosol samples were collected from LPMs. Nine samples were positive for H9-subtype AIVs based on quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRRT-PCR). According to the whole genome sequence analysis and phylogenetic analysis, except for the A/Environment/Zhongshan/ZS201505/2015 (ZS201505) strain, 8 gene segments of 8 aerosol H9N2 isolates and 2 H9N2 human isolates in 2015 were located in the same clade. Among key loci variations, except for the ZS201505 strain, H9N2-subtype AIVs had no mutations in eight receptor binding sites of hemagglutinin (HA), and stalks of neuraminidase (NA) proteins exhibited a deletion site of three bases. The PA gene of ZS201503 and ZS201602 exhibited an L336M mutation. The N30D and T215A mutations in the M1 gene and amino acid residues L89V in PB2, P42S in NS1 and S31N in M2 were retained in these 9 strains of H9N2 isolates, which could enhance the virus's virulence.Live H9N2 AIVs survived in the aerosol of LPMs in Zhongshan City. The aerosol viruses had a close evolutionary relationship with human epidemic strains, indicating that there might be a risk of AIV transmission from polluted aerosols in LPMs to humans. Mutations in H9N2-subtype AIVs isolated from air samples collected from LPMs suggested their pathogenicity was enhanced to infect humans.

  • Reduction in Rate of Nosocomial Respiratory Virus Infections in a Children's Hospital Associated With Enhanced Isolation Precautions.
    Reduction in Rate of Nosocomial Respiratory Virus Infections in a Children's Hospital Associated With Enhanced Isolation Precautions. [Journal Article]Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018 Jan 14.:1-5.ICRubin LG, Kohn N, Nullet S, et al. Enhanced isolation precautions for inpatients with respiratory virus infections were associated with a reduction in the rate of nosocomial respiratory virus infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 20...Publisher Full TextOBJECTIVE To determine whether the use of enhanced isolation precautions (droplet and contact precautions) for inpatients with respiratory tract viral infections is associated with a reduction in rate of nosocomial viral respiratory infections. DESIGN Quasi-experimental study with the rate of nosocomial respiratory virus infection as the primary dependent variable and rate of nosocomial Clostridium difficile infection as a nonequivalent dependent variable comparator. SETTING Cohen Children's Medical Center of NY, a tertiary-care children's hospital attached to a large general hospital. INTERVENTION During years 1 and 2 (July 2012 through June 2014), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee's recommended isolation precautions for inpatients with selected respiratory virus infections were in effect. Enhanced isolation precautions were in effect during years 3 and 4 (July, 2014 through June, 2016), except for influenza, for which enhanced precautions were in effect during year 4 only. RESULTS During the period of enhanced isolation precautions, the rate of nosocomial respiratory virus infections with any of 4 virus categories decreased 39% from 0.827 per 1,000 hospital days prior to enhanced precautions to 0.508 per 1,000 hospital days (P<.0013). Excluding rhinovirus/enterovirus infections, the rates decreased 58% from 0.317 per 1,000 hospital days to 0.134 per 1,000 hospital days during enhanced precautions (P<.0014). During these periods, no significant change was detected in the rate of nosocomial C. difficile infection. CONCLUSIONS Enhanced isolation precautions for inpatients with respiratory virus infections were associated with a reduction in the rate of nosocomial respiratory virus infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;1-5.

  • Supplementing dietary rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) powder and vitamin E in broiler chickens: evaluation of humoral immune response, lymphoid organs, and blood proteins.
    Supplementing dietary rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) powder and vitamin E in broiler chickens: evaluation of humoral immune response, lymphoid organs, and blood proteins. [Journal Article]Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Jan 12.ESRostami H, Seidavi A, Dadashbeiki M, et al. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) powder (RP) and vitamin E (VE) at different levels on humoral immunity of broilers during a 42-day productio...Publisher Full TextThe aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) powder (RP) and vitamin E (VE) at different levels on humoral immunity of broilers during a 42-day production cycle. A total of 270 1-day-old male chicks were assigned to nine groups with three replicates of ten birds each, and diets were supplemented with 0, 0.5, or 1.0% RP and 0, 100, or 200 mg/kg VE, respectively. Commercial-inactivated vaccines against avian influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND) viruses, and living infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccine were administered by spray method. Sheep red blood cells (SRBC) were administered subcutaneously. Blood samples were collected from birds 1 week after each vaccination to determine antibody titers. At the 42nd day, blood samples were also assessed for globulin level, and lymphoid tissues (thymus, spleen, and bursa) were weighed. Neither antibody titers against viruses nor lymphoid tissues weight were affected by RP and/or VE (P > 0.05) treatments. However, broilers supplemented with 0 mg/kg of VE had lower antibody titers against SRBC than those fed 100 mg/kg of VE (P < 0.05) at the 24th day. A significant RP × VE interaction effect (P < 0.05) on plasma globulin level was observed. The findings of our study suggest that dietary RP and VE additives can interact and modulate the humoral immunity of broilers, but not sufficiently to improve antibody titers against specific virus during a 42-day production cycle.

  • The parameter identification problem for SIR epidemic models: identifying unreported cases.
    The parameter identification problem for SIR epidemic models: identifying unreported cases. [Journal Article]J Math Biol 2018 Jan 13.JMMagal P, Webb G A SIR epidemic model is analyzed with respect to identification of its parameters, based upon reported case data from public health sources. The objective of the analysis is to understand the relation ...Publisher Full TextA SIR epidemic model is analyzed with respect to identification of its parameters, based upon reported case data from public health sources. The objective of the analysis is to understand the relation of unreported cases to reported cases. In many epidemic diseases the ratio of unreported to reported cases is very high, and of major importance in implementing measures for controlling the epidemic. This ratio can be estimated by the identification of parameters for the model from reported case data. The analysis is applied to three examples: (1) the Hong Kong seasonal influenza epidemic in New York City in 1968-1969, (2) the bubonic plague epidemic in Bombay, India in 1906, and (3) the seasonal influenza epidemic in Puerto Rico in 2016-2017.

  • Effects of allelic variations in the human Myxovirus resistance protein A on its antiviral activity.
    Effects of allelic variations in the human Myxovirus resistance protein A on its antiviral activity. [Journal Article]J Biol Chem 2018 Jan 12.JBGraf L, Dick A, Sendker F, et al. Only a minority of patients infected with seasonal influenza A viruses exhibits a severe or fatal outcome of infection, but the reasons for this inter-individual variability in influenza susceptibility...Publisher Full TextOnly a minority of patients infected with seasonal influenza A viruses exhibits a severe or fatal outcome of infection, but the reasons for this inter-individual variability in influenza susceptibility are unclear. To gain further insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying this variability, we investigated naturally occurring allelic variations of the myxovirus resistance 1 (MX1) gene coding for the influenza restriction factor MxA. The interferon-induced dynamin-like GTPase consists of an N-terminal GTPase domain, a bundle signaling element, and a C-terminal stalk responsible for oligomerization and viral target recognition. We used online databases to search for variations in the MX1 gene. Deploying in vitro approaches, we found that non-synonymous variations in the GTPase domain cause the loss of antiviral and enzymatic activities. Furthermore, we showed that these amino acid substitutions disrupt the interface for GTPase domain dimerization required for the stimulation of GTP hydrolysis. Variations in the stalk were neutral or slightly enhanced or abolished MxA antiviral function. Remarkably, two other stalk variants altered the antiviral specificity of MxA. Variations causing the loss of antiviral activity were found only in heterozygous carriers. Interestingly, the inactive stalk variants blocked the antiviral activity of wt MxA in a dominant-negative way suggesting that heterozygotes are phenotypically MxA-negative. In contrast, the GTPase-deficient variants showed no dominant-negative effect, indicating that heterozygous carriers should remain unaffected. Our results demonstrate that naturally occurring mutations in the human MX1 gene can influence MxA function which may explain individual variations in influenza virus susceptibility in the human population.

  • Comparison of Cepheid® Xpert Flu and Roche RealTime Ready Influenza A/H1N1 Detection Set for detection of influenza A/H1N1.
    Comparison of Cepheid® Xpert Flu and Roche RealTime Ready Influenza A/H1N1 Detection Set for detection of influenza A/H1N1. [Journal Article]Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2017 Dec 16.DMRabaan AA, Bazzi AM, Alshaikh SA Specificity of the Cepheid® Xpert Flu test was high; however, sensitivity for total influenza A was lower particularly in males and older patients.Publisher Full TextTo compare two influenza polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods.A total of 749 suspected MERS-CoV patients presenting at Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare, Saudi Arabia, each submitted a clinical sample for influenza A reflex testing using the on-site Cepheid® Xpert Flu assay and at the Ministry of Health laboratory by the Roche PCR assay.There was 92.12% overall agreement between the two methods. Specificity of the Cepheid® Xpert Flu was 95.8% for H1N1 and 94.4% for total influenza A. Cepheid® Xpert Flu sensitivity for influenza A was 100% for younger patients (0-19-year age group) but significantly lower both for older patients (68.2% for 60-79-year and 50% for ≥80-year age groups) and overall for males compared to females (72.6% and 94.0%, respectively).Specificity of the Cepheid® Xpert Flu test was high; however, sensitivity for total influenza A was lower particularly in males and older patients.

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Articles

Overview of latest articles and publications on the Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in PubMed. PubMed is a service of the US National Library of Medicine that includes over 18 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals.