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Influenza Literature - Latest PubMed Articles

Overview of latest articles and publications on ebola in PubMed. PubMed is a service of the US National Library of Medicine that includes over 18 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals.


  • Determinant of receptor-preference switch in influenza hemagglutinin.
    Determinant of receptor-preference switch in influenza hemagglutinin. [Journal Article]Virology 2017 Oct 18.:98-107.VNi F, Kondrashkina E, Wang Q Influenza pandemic occurs when a new strain from other animal species overcomes the inter-species barriers and supports rapid human-to-human transmission. A critical prerequisite to this process is tha...Publisher Full TextInfluenza pandemic occurs when a new strain from other animal species overcomes the inter-species barriers and supports rapid human-to-human transmission. A critical prerequisite to this process is that hemagglutinin (HA) acquires a few key mutations to switch from avian receptors to human receptors. Previous studies suggest that H1 and H2/H3 HAs use different sets of mutations for the switch. This report shows that HA from the 1918 H1N1 pandemic virus (1918H1 HA) adopts the set of mutations used by H2/H3 HAs in receptor-preference switch when its 130-loop is made similar to those of H2/H3 HAs. Thus, the 130-loop appears to be the key determinant for the different mutations employed by pandemic H1 or H2/H3 HA. The correlation of the mutational routes and the 130-loop as unraveled in this study opens the door for efficient investigation of mutations required by other HA subtypes for inter-human airborne transmission.

  • Development of an xTAG-multiplex PCR array for the detection of four avian respiratory viruses.
    Development of an xTAG-multiplex PCR array for the detection of four avian respiratory viruses. [Journal Article]Mol Cell Probes 2017 Oct 17.MCCong F, Zhu Y, Liu X, et al. Acute respiratory tract infections are of paramount importance in the poultry industry. We developed an xTAG bead assay for the simultaneous detection and discrimination of avian influenza virus (AIV),...Publisher Full TextAcute respiratory tract infections are of paramount importance in the poultry industry. We developed an xTAG bead assay for the simultaneous detection and discrimination of avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The assay lacked nonspecific reactions with other common avian viruses and the limit of detection was 6.75 × 10(2)- 3.52 × 10(3)copies/μL. We examined 60 clinical specimens and found 18 positive for respiratory viruses. Our result demonstrated that xTAG-multiplex PCR method is a high-throughput, rapid, specific and sensitive assay for use in epidemiological studies and clinical detection of avian respiratory pathogens.

  • Assessing the reporting quality of influenza outbreaks in the community.
    Assessing the reporting quality of influenza outbreaks in the community. [Journal Article]Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2017 Oct 20.IOLo C, Mertz D, Loeb M The development of explicit reporting guidelines specifically geared towards reporting of outbreak investigations proved to be useful. Providing information on patient characteristics, investigation de...Publisher Full TextHigh quality reporting of outbreak characteristics is fundamental to understand the behavior of various strains of influenza virus and the impact of outbreak management strategies. However, few studies have systematically evaluated the quality of outbreak reporting.To conduct a systematic analysis and assessment for reporting quality of influenza outbreaks based on a modified version of the STROBE statement, and to examine characteristics associated with reporting quality.A literature search was conducted across three online databases (PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE) for reports of influenza outbreaks (pandemic H1N1, avian, seasonal). The quality of reports meeting our eligibility criteria was assessed using the Modified STROBE criteria and assigned a score out of 30. Mean differences (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported for comparisons of study characteristics.Sixty-four outbreak reports were available for analyses. The average Modified STROBE score was 20/30. Peer reviewed articles were associated with a better quality of reporting (MD 2.79, 95% CI 0.79-4.78). Likewise, reports from authors affiliated with public health agencies were associated with better quality than those from academic institutions (MD 1.65, 95% CI -0.27 to 3.56).The development of explicit reporting guidelines specifically geared towards reporting of outbreak investigations proved to be useful. Providing information on patient characteristics, investigation details in introduction and results, as well as addressing limitations that could have biased the findings were frequently missing in the published reports. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • T cell epitope Content Comparison (EpiCC) of swine H1 influenza A virus hemagglutinin.
    T cell epitope Content Comparison (EpiCC) of swine H1 influenza A virus hemagglutinin. [Journal Article]Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2017 Oct 20.IOGutiérrez AH, Rapp-Gabrielson V, Terry FE, et al. EpiCC thresholds can be evaluated for predictive accuracy of protection in future efficacy studies. EpiCC may also complement HI cross-reactivity and phylogeny for selection of influenza strains in vac...Publisher Full TextPredicting vaccine efficacy against emerging pathogen strains is a significant problem in human and animal vaccine design. T cell epitope cross-conservation may play an important role in cross-strain vaccine efficacy. While influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers are widely used to predict protective efficacy of one IAV vaccine against new strains, no similar correlate of protection has been identified for T cell epitopes.We developed a computational method (EpiCC) that facilitates pairwise comparison of protein sequences based on an immunological property - T cell epitope content - rather than sequence identity, and evaluated its ability to classify swine IAV strain relatedness to estimate cross-protective potential of a vaccine strain for circulating viruses.T cell epitope relatedness scores were assessed for 23 IAV HA sequences representing the major H1 swine IAV phylo-clusters circulating in North American swine and HA sequences in a commercial inactivated vaccine (FluSure XP(®) ). Scores were compared to experimental data from previous efficacy studies.Higher EpiCC scores were associated with greater protection by the vaccine against strains for 23 field IAV strain-vaccine comparisons. A threshold for EpiCC relatedness associated with full or partial protection in the absence of cross-reactive HI antibodies was identified. EpiCC scores for field strains for which FluSure protective efficacy is not yet available, were also calculated.EpiCC thresholds can be evaluated for predictive accuracy of protection in future efficacy studies. EpiCC may also complement HI cross-reactivity and phylogeny for selection of influenza strains in vaccine development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • Human Parainfluenza Virus Infection in Severe Acute Respiratory Infection Cases in Beijing, 2014-2016: a Molecular Epidemiological Study.
    Human Parainfluenza Virus Infection in Severe Acute Respiratory Infection Cases in Beijing, 2014-2016: a Molecular Epidemiological Study. [Journal Article]Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2017 Oct 20.IOPan Y, Zhang Y, Weixian S, et al. Besides the young children, the elders older than 60 years also showed a relatively high infection rate of HPIVS, which should be given comparable attentions. Moreover, the HPIV-3 circulating in China ...Publisher Full TextSevere Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI) threatens human health and even survival, causing a huge number of hospitalized patients every year. However, as one of the most common respiratory viruses circulated worldwide, the epidemiological and phylogenetic characteristics of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) in these cases were not well known.A molecular epidemiological study against HPIVs infection in SARIs was performed from Sep. 2014 to Aug. 2016. A total of 1,229 SARI cases in Beijing area were enrolled, investigated, sampled and tested by multiplex real-time PCR to identify HPIVs and other common respiratory viruses. 18 HPIV-3 viruses isolated from all HPIV-positive samples in these SARI cases were sequenced and analyzed.Among all enrolled cases, 0.81%, 0.73%, 4.48% and 0.57% were positive for HPIV-1 to HPIV-4, respectively. The highest yield rate of HPIVs infection occurred in children under five years old (9.07%), followed by the patients over 60 years old (6.02%). The phylogenetic information of HPIV-3 showed that all viruses belonged to Cluster C3a.Besides the young children, the elders older than 60 years also showed a relatively high infection rate of HPIVS, which should be given comparable attentions. Moreover, the HPIV-3 circulating in China undergoes continued evolution, suggesting the potential risk of evolved HPIVs infection should not be overlooked. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • Mortality burden from seasonal influenza and 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza in Beijing, China, 2007-2013.
    Mortality burden from seasonal influenza and 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza in Beijing, China, 2007-2013. [Journal Article, Review]Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2017 Oct 20.IOWu S, Wei Z, Greene CM, et al. Influenza is an important contributor to mortality in Beijing, especially among those aged ≥65 years. These results support current policies to give priority to older adults for seasonal influenza vacc...Publisher Full TextData about influenza mortality burden in northern China are limited. This study estimated mortality burden in Beijing associated with seasonal influenza from 2007-2013 and the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.We estimated influenza-associated excess mortality by fitting a negative binomial model using weekly mortality data as the outcome of interest with the percent of influenza positive samples by type/subtype as predictor variables.From 2007 to 2013, an average of 2,375 (CI 1,002-8,688) deaths was attributed to influenza per season, accounting for 3% of all deaths. Overall, 81% of the deaths attributed to influenza occurred in adults aged ≥65 years, and the influenza-associated mortality rate in this age group was higher than the rate among those aged <65 years (113.6 [CI 49.5-397.4] versus 4.4 [CI 1.7-18.6] per 100,000, p<0.05). The mortality rate associated with the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in 2009/10 was comparable to that of seasonal influenza during the seasonal years (19.9 [CI 10.4-33.1] vs. 17.2 [CI 7.2-67.5] per 100,000). People aged <65 years represented a greater proportion of all deaths during the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic period than during the seasonal epidemics (27.0% vs. 17.7%, p<0.05).Influenza is an important contributor to mortality in Beijing, especially among those aged ≥65 years. These results support current policies to give priority to older adults for seasonal influenza vaccination and help to define the populations at highest risk for death that could be targeted for pandemic influenza vaccination. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • Development of a nanogel-based nasal vaccine as a novel antigen delivery system.
    Development of a nanogel-based nasal vaccine as a novel antigen delivery system. [Journal Article]Expert Rev Vaccines 2017 Oct 20.ERNakahashi-Ouchida R, Yuki Y, Kiyono H Nasal vaccination is one of the most effective immunization methods because it can induce effective antigen-specific immune responses not only at the mucosal site of administration but also at distant ...Publisher Full TextNasal vaccination is one of the most effective immunization methods because it can induce effective antigen-specific immune responses not only at the mucosal site of administration but also at distant mucosal surfaces, as well as in the systemic compartment. Based on this advantage, many nasal vaccines are being developed and some have been licensed and marketed for clinical use. However, some have been withdrawn because of unacceptable adverse events such as inactivated influenza vaccine administrated with a heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli as an adjuvant. Thus, it is important to consider both the efficacy and safety of nasal vaccines. Areas covered: This review describes the benefits of cholesteryl group-bearing pullulan (CHP) nanogels for nasal vaccine delivery and vaccine development identified on Pubmed database with the term 'Nanogel-based nasal vaccine'. Expert commentary: CHP nanogels have been developed as novel drug delivery system, and a cationic CHP nanogels have been demonstrated to induce effective immunity as a nasal vaccine antigen carrier. Since vaccine antigens incorporated into CHP nanogels have exhibited no brain deposition after nasal administration in mice and nonhuman primates, the vaccine seems safe, and could be a promising new delivery system.

  • Systematic Assessment of Multiple Routine and Near-Real Time Indicators to Classify the Severity of Influenza Seasons and Pandemics in the United States, 2003-04 Through 2015-2016.
    Systematic Assessment of Multiple Routine and Near-Real Time Indicators to Classify the Severity of Influenza Seasons and Pandemics in the United States, 2003-04 Through 2015-2016. [Journal Article]Am J Epidemiol 2017 Oct 19.AJBiggerstaff M, Kniss K, Jernigan DB, et al. Assessments of influenza season severity can guide public health action. We used the Moving Epidemic Method to develop intensity thresholds (IT) for 3 US surveillance indicators from the 2003-04-2014-1...Publisher Full TextAssessments of influenza season severity can guide public health action. We used the Moving Epidemic Method to develop intensity thresholds (IT) for 3 US surveillance indicators from the 2003-04-2014-15 influenza season (excluding the 2009 pandemic): 1) outpatient visits for influenza-like illness, 2) influenza-related hospitalizations, and 3) influenza- and pneumonia-related deaths. ITs were developed for the overall population and children, adults, and older adults separately and were the upper limit of the 50% (IT50), 90% (IT90), and 98% (IT98) one-sided CIs of the geometric mean of each season's 3 highest values. Severity was classified as low if ≥2 systems peaked below IT50, moderate if ≥2 peaked between IT50 and IT90, high if ≥2 peaked between IT90 and IT98, and very high if ≥2 peaked above IT98. We piloted this method with the 2015-16 season and the 2009 pandemic. Overall, 4 seasons were classified as low severity, 7 as moderate, 2 as high, and none as very high. While older adults had the most seasons (n = 3) classified as high, children were the only group to have seasons (n = 2) classified as very high. We will apply this method to classify the severity of future seasons and inform pandemic response.

  • Characterizing and Comparing the Seasonality of Influenza-Like Illnesses and Invasive Pneumococcal Diseases Using Seasonal Waveforms.
    Characterizing and Comparing the Seasonality of Influenza-Like Illnesses and Invasive Pneumococcal Diseases Using Seasonal Waveforms. [Journal Article]Am J Epidemiol 2017 Oct 19.AJDomenech de Cellès M, Arduin H, Varon E, et al. The seasonalities of influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) and invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs) remain incompletely understood. Experimental evidence indicates that influenza-virus infection predisposes...Publisher Full TextThe seasonalities of influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) and invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs) remain incompletely understood. Experimental evidence indicates that influenza-virus infection predisposes to pneumococcal disease, so that a correspondence in the seasonal patterns of ILIs and IPDs might exist at the population level. We developed a method to characterize seasonality by means of easily interpretable summary statistics of seasonal shape-or seasonal waveforms. Non-linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate those waveforms based on weekly case reports of ILIs and IPDs in five regions spanning continental France from July 2000 to June 2014. We found high variability of ILI seasonality, with marked fluctuations of peak amplitudes and peak times, but a more conserved epidemic duration. In contrast, IPD seasonality was best modeled by a markedly regular seasonal baseline, punctuated by two winter peaks in late December-early January and January-February. Comparing ILI and IPD seasonal waveforms, we found indication of a small, positive correlation. Direct models regressing IPDs on ILIs provided comparable results, even though they estimated moderately larger associations. The method proposed is broadly applicable to diseases with unambiguous seasonality and is well-suited to analyze spatially or temporally grouped data, which are common in epidemiology.

  • Treatment with the NR4A1 agonist cytosporone B controls influenza virus infection and improves pulmonary function in infected mice.
    Treatment with the NR4A1 agonist cytosporone B controls influenza virus infection and improves pulmonary function in infected mice. [Journal Article]PLoS One 2017; 12(10):e0186639.PlosEgarnes B, Blanchet MR, Gosselin J The transcription factor NR4A1 has emerged as a pivotal regulator of the inflammatory response and immune homeostasis. Although contribution of NR4A1 in the innate immune response has been demonstrated...Publisher Full TextThe transcription factor NR4A1 has emerged as a pivotal regulator of the inflammatory response and immune homeostasis. Although contribution of NR4A1 in the innate immune response has been demonstrated, its role in host defense against viral infection remains to be investigated. In the present study, we show that administration of cytosporone B (Csn-B), a specific agonist of NR4A1, to mice infected with influenza virus (IAV) reduces lung viral loads and improves pulmonary function. Our results demonstrate that administration of Csn-B to naive mice leads to a modest production of type 1 IFN. However, in IAV-infected mice, such production of IFNs is markedly increased following treatment with Csn-B. Our study also reveals that alveolar macrophages (AMs) appear to have a significant role in Csn-B effects, since selective depletion of AMs with clodronate liposome correlates with a marked reduction of IFN production, viral clearance and morbidity in IAV-infected mice. Furthermore, when reemergence of AMs is observed following clodronate liposome administration, an increased production of IFNs was detected in bronchoalveolar fluids of IAV-infected mice treated with Csn-B, supporting the contribution of AMs in Csn-B effects. While treatment of mice with Csn-B induces phosphorylation of transcriptional factors IRF3 and IRF7, the latter appears to be less indispensable since effects of Csn-B treatment on the synthesis of IFNs were slightly affected in IAV-infected mice lacking functional IRF7. Together, our results highlight the capacity of Csn-B and consequently of NR4A1 transcription factor in controlling IAV infection.

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Articles

Overview of latest articles and publications on the Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in PubMed. PubMed is a service of the US National Library of Medicine that includes over 18 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals.