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Influenza Literature - Latest PubMed Articles

Overview of latest articles and publications on ebola in PubMed. PubMed is a service of the US National Library of Medicine that includes over 18 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals.


  • Impact of patient education on influenza vaccine uptake among community-dwelling elderly: a randomized controlled trial.
    Impact of patient education on influenza vaccine uptake among community-dwelling elderly: a randomized controlled trial. [Journal Article]Health Educ Res 2017 Oct 01; 32(5):455-464.HELeung KC, Mui C, Chiu WY, et al. This randomized controlled trial aimed to test the effectiveness of brief face-to-face patient education in increasing influenza vaccination rate among elderly in the community. Recruitment and interve...This randomized controlled trial aimed to test the effectiveness of brief face-to-face patient education in increasing influenza vaccination rate among elderly in the community. Recruitment and intervention were conducted at two general outpatient clinics in Hong Kong. 529 eligible patients were randomly assigned to intervention or control group with 1:1 allocation ratio. Patients in the intervention group received 3-min one-on-one verbal education by medical students and a pamphlet regarding influenza vaccination. Neither verbal health education nor pamphlet was given to the control group. Intention-to-treat analysis showed significantly higher vaccination rate in the intervention group compared with the control group (33.6 versus 25.0%) and the adjusted relative risk was 1.34 (95% CI 1.04-1.72; P = 0.021). Hence, brief face-to-face patient education was effective in increasing influenza vaccine uptake rate of community-dwelling elderly patients. Participants who were undecided whether to receive vaccination seemed to demonstrate larger beneficial effect (RR = 7.84; 95% CI 1.06-57.76) compared with patients who were certain of either receiving (RR = 1.16; 95% CI 0.90-1.48) or not receiving (RR = 2.18; 95% CI 0.68-6.99) the vaccine. The study also revealed that patients' intention for vaccination may not translate into action, reasons for which should be explored in future research.

  • Lactobacillus paracasei feeding improves immune control of influenza infection in mice.
    Lactobacillus paracasei feeding improves immune control of influenza infection in mice. [Journal Article]PLoS One 2017; 12(9):e0184976.PlosBelkacem N, Serafini N, Wheeler R, et al. Respiratory tract infections such as flu cause severe morbidity and mortality and are among the leading causes of death in children and adults worldwide. Commensal microbiota is critical for orchestrat...Respiratory tract infections such as flu cause severe morbidity and mortality and are among the leading causes of death in children and adults worldwide. Commensal microbiota is critical for orchestrating tissue homeostasis and immunity in the intestine. Probiotics represent an interesting source of immune modulators and several clinical studies have addressed the potential beneficial effects of probiotics against respiratory infections. Therefore, we have investigated the mechanisms of protection conferred by L. paracasei CNCM I-1518 strain in a mouse model of influenza infection. Notably, local myeloid cells accumulation is generated in the lungs after seven days feeding with L. paracasei prior to viral infection. L. paracasei-fed mice showed reduced susceptibility to the influenza infection, associated with less accumulation of inflammatory cells in the lungs, faster viral clearance and general health improvement. Interestingly, Allobaculum was significantly increased in L. paracasei-fed mice 7 days after influenza infection, even if the gut microbiota composition was not altered overall. L. paracasei-purified peptidoglycan partially recapitulated the protective phenotype observed with the entire bacteria. Collectively, our results demonstrate that oral consumption of L. paracasei CNCM I-1518 modulates lung immunity was associated with an improved control of influenza infection. These results further extend the beneficial role for certain lactobacilli to alleviate the burden of respiratory tract infections.

  • Influenza A Virus Studies in a Mouse Model of Infection.
    Influenza A Virus Studies in a Mouse Model of Infection. [Journal Article]J Vis Exp 2017 Sep 07; (127)JVRodriguez L, Nogales A, Martínez-Sobrido L Influenza viruses cause over 500,000 deaths worldwide(1) and are associated with an annual cost of 12 - 14 billion USD in the United States alone considering direct medical and hospitalization expenses...Influenza viruses cause over 500,000 deaths worldwide(1) and are associated with an annual cost of 12 - 14 billion USD in the United States alone considering direct medical and hospitalization expenses and work absenteeism(2). Animal models are crucial in Influenza A virus (IAV) studies to evaluate viral pathogenesis, host-pathogen interactions, immune responses, and the efficacy of current and/or novel vaccine approaches as well as antivirals. Mice are an advantageous small animal model because their immune system is evolutionarily similar to that found in humans, they are available from commercial vendors as genetically identical subjects, there are multiple strains that can be exploited to evaluate the genetic basis of infections, and they are relatively inexpensive and easy to manipulate. To recapitulate IAV infection in humans via the airways, mice are first anesthetized prior to intranasal inoculation with infectious IAVs under proper biosafety containment. After infection, the pathogenesis of IAVs is determined by monitoring daily the morbidity (body weight loss) and mortality (survival) rate. In addition, viral pathogenesis can also be evaluated by assessing virus replication in the upper (nasal mucosa) or lower (lungs) respiratory tract of infected mice. Humoral responses upon IAV infection can be rapidly evaluated by non-invasive bleeding and secondary antibody detection assays aimed at detecting the presence of total or neutralizing antibodies. Here, we describe the common methods used to infect mice intranasally (i.n) with IAV and evaluate pathogenesis, humoral immune responses and protection efficacy.

  • The relationship between 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza during pregnancy and preterm birth: a population-based cohort study.
    The relationship between 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza during pregnancy and preterm birth: a population-based cohort study. [Journal Article]Epidemiology 2017 Sep 19.EFell DB, Platt RW, Basso O, et al. In the general obstetrical population, there was no association between pH1N1 influenza illness and preterm birth, but women with pre-existing medical conditions known to increase the risk of influenza...Previous studies of maternal influenza illness and preterm birth have yielded inconsistent results. Our objective was to assess the association between 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza during pregnancy and preterm birth in a large obstetrical population.We linked a province-wide birth registry with health administrative databases to identify influenza-coded hospitalizations, emergency department visits, or physician visits among pregnant women during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic (our proxy for clinical pH1N1 influenza illness). Using Cox regression, we estimated adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) for preterm birth and spontaneous preterm birth treating influenza as a time-varying exposure.Among 192,082 women with a singleton live birth, 2,925 (1.5%) had an influenza-coded health care encounter during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Compared with unexposed pregnancy time, there was no association between exposure to the pandemic, with or without clinical influenza illness, and preterm birth (no pH1N1 diagnosis: aHR=1.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98, 1.1; pH1N1 diagnosis: aHR=1.0; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.2). Among women with pre-existing medical conditions, influenza was associated with increased preterm birth (aHR=1.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.2) and spontaneous preterm birth (aHR=1.7; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.6), and these associations were strongest in the third trimester and when data were analyzed to allow for a transient acute effect of influenza.In the general obstetrical population, there was no association between pH1N1 influenza illness and preterm birth, but women with pre-existing medical conditions known to increase the risk of influenza-associated morbidity were at elevated risk.

  • Antibody 27F3 Broadly Targets Influenza A Group 1 and 2 Hemagglutinins through a Further Variation in VH1-69 Antibody Orientation on the HA Stem.
    Antibody 27F3 Broadly Targets Influenza A Group 1 and 2 Hemagglutinins through a Further Variation in VH1-69 Antibody Orientation on the HA Stem. [Journal Article]Cell Rep 2017 Sep 19; 20(12):2935-2943.CRLang S, Xie J, Zhu X, et al. Antibodies that target both group 1 and group 2 influenza A viruses are valuable for therapeutic and vaccine development, but only a few have been reported to date. Here, we describe a new VH1-69 antib...Antibodies that target both group 1 and group 2 influenza A viruses are valuable for therapeutic and vaccine development, but only a few have been reported to date. Here, we describe a new VH1-69 antibody 27F3 that broadly recognizes heterosubtypic hemagglutinins (HAs) from both group 1 and group 2 influenza A viruses. Structural characterization of 27F3 Fab with A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) hemagglutinin illustrates that 27F3 shares the key binding features observed in other VH1-69 antibodies to the HA stem. Compared to other VH1-69 antibodies, the 27F3 VH domain interacts with the HA stem in a distinct orientation, which alters its epitope and may have influenced its breadth. The diverse rotations of VH1-69 antibodies on the HA stem epitope highlight the different ways that this antibody family can evolve to broadly neutralize influenza A viruses. These results have important implications for understanding how to elicit broad antibody responses against influenza virus.

  • Take DAT, Flu!
    Take DAT, Flu! [Journal Article]Immunity 2017 Sep 19; 47(3):400-402.ILobel L, Garrett WS Some microbial metabolites can be immunomodulatory, but there is limited understanding of how these contribute to inter-individual variation in response to infection. In a recent study in Science, Stee...Some microbial metabolites can be immunomodulatory, but there is limited understanding of how these contribute to inter-individual variation in response to infection. In a recent study in Science, Steed et al. (2017) show that the bacterial metabolite desaminotyrosine (DAT) increases type I interferon expression, resulting in an improved immune response to influenza infection.

  • Molecular evolution of hemagglutinin gene of Influenza A virus.
    Molecular evolution of hemagglutinin gene of Influenza A virus. [Journal Article]Front Biosci (Schol Ed) 2018 Jan 01.:101-118.FBDe A In the history of human civilization, influenza is the second most catastrophic killer disease for mankind with plague ranking first in the medieval times. The 1918-1919 'Spanish flu' killed 20-50 mill...In the history of human civilization, influenza is the second most catastrophic killer disease for mankind with plague ranking first in the medieval times. The 1918-1919 'Spanish flu' killed 20-50 million people worldwide. According to a report from WHO, there have been four pandemics, several epidemics and recurrent seasonal outbreaks of influenza in different parts of the world. The virus is a potential bioterrorism threat with biological 'Chernobyl-like disaster' that occurred in Soviet Russia in 1977. Here, the author reviews the biology of the surface exposed hemagglutinin of the influenza virus, a gene under constant positive selection pressure to evade host immunity and vaccination. Global, local and seasonal outbreaks of influenza lead to a significant number of deaths both in humans and poultry birds.

  • [Differences in influenza vaccination coverage among subgroups of adult immigrants residing in Italy at risk for complications (2012-2013)].
    [Differences in influenza vaccination coverage among subgroups of adult immigrants residing in Italy at risk for complications (2012-2013)]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]Epidemiol Prev 2017 May-Aug; 41(3-4 (Suppl 1)):50-56.EPFabiani M, Di Napoli A, Riccardo F, et al. demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and level of health services utilization explained part of the difference in IVC between the compared subgroups, particularly between long-term and recent ...to evaluate differences in influenza vaccination coverage (IVC) in immigrants at risk for influenza-related complications, according to their area of origin and length of stay in Italy.cross-sectional survey conducted on the sample of foreign citizens included in the survey on health conditions and use of health services of the Italian resident population (Italian national institute of statistics, 2012-2013).analysis conducted on 885 foreign adult citizens (≥18 years) at risk for influenza-related complications (elderly residents ≥65 years and residents with specific chronic diseases).vaccination coverage ratios (VCR) comparison between long-term immigrants (≥10 years) and recent immigrants (<10 years), and between non-African and African immigrants, adjusted by demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and level of health services utilization.IVC among immigrants was 15.6%, significantly higher in long-term immigrants (18.3%) compared to recent immigrants (10.2%) (VCR: 1.79; 95%CI 1.21-2.66), and in non-African immigrants (17.1%) compared to African immigrants (9.4%) (VCR: 1.82; 95%CI 1.04-3.17). After adjusting on the basis of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and for level of health services utilization between the compared subgroups, the difference in IVC according to the length of stay was greatly reduced (VCR: 1.41; 95%CI 0.94- 2.10), while IVC difference reduction according to area of origin was less relevant (VCR: 1.66; 95%CI 0.95-2.91).demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and level of health services utilization explained part of the difference in IVC between the compared subgroups, particularly between long-term and recent immigrants. The difference in IVC between African immigrants and immigrants from other areas remained quite pronounced even after adjusting on the basis of these factors. This suggests that IVC, especially in African immigrants, is affected by other informal barriers, such as cultural and linguistic barriers, that need to be addressed when planning effective immunization access strategies.

  • Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of Radavirsen (AVI-7100), an Antisense Oligonucleotide Targeting Influenza A M1/M2 translation.
    Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of Radavirsen (AVI-7100), an Antisense Oligonucleotide Targeting Influenza A M1/M2 translation. [Journal Article]Br J Clin Pharmacol 2017 Sep 20.BJBeigel JH, Voell J, Muñoz P, et al. Single infusions of radavirsen up to 8 mg/kg, and multi-dosing at 8 mg/kg once daily for 5 days, appear to be safe and well-tolerated in healthy subjects. The multi-dose Day 4 AUC0-24 this study is com...To assess the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of radavirsen following single ascending doses and multiple doses given as IV infusions in healthy adults.A Phase 1 safety and pharmacokinetic (PK) study of radavirsen was performed in healthy volunteers. The study was divided into 2 parts. The first was a single-ascending dose study of 5 cohorts of 8 subjects each, randomized 6:2 to receive single intravenous doses of radavirsen ranging from 0.5 to 8 mg/kg or placebo. The second was a multiple dose study of 16 subjects randomized 12:4 to receive 8 mg/kg or placebo once daily for 5 days.66 subjects were screened and 56 subjects were dosed between 2013 and 2015. At least one adverse event occurred in 31/42 (74%) who received radavirsen, and 13/14 (93%) receiving placebo. The most common adverse events were headache and proteinuria, and were similar among those receiving radavirsen or placebo. Single dose PK demonstrated relatively linear and dose-proportional increases in maximal concentration and area-under-the-concentration-time curve (AUC0-24 ). At 8 mg/kg in the multiple dose cohort, the Day 4 geometric mean AUC0-24 was 57.9 μg*h/mL.Single infusions of radavirsen up to 8 mg/kg, and multi-dosing at 8 mg/kg once daily for 5 days, appear to be safe and well-tolerated in healthy subjects. The multi-dose Day 4 AUC0-24 this study is comparable to the AUC which was associated with protection from viral infection in a preclinical ferret influenza model. Further evaluation of radavirsen for the treatment of influenza infections is warranted.

  • FPR2: A Novel Promising Target for the Treatment of Influenza.
    FPR2: A Novel Promising Target for the Treatment of Influenza. [Journal Article, Review]Front Microbiol 2017.:1719.FMAlessi MC, Cenac N, Si-Tahar M, et al. The Formyl-peptide receptor-2 (FPR2) is a seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor, which plays an important role in sensing of bacteria and modulation of immune responses. FPR2 is also used by v...The Formyl-peptide receptor-2 (FPR2) is a seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor, which plays an important role in sensing of bacteria and modulation of immune responses. FPR2 is also used by viruses for their own profit. Annexin A1, one of the multiple ligands of FPR2, is incorporated in the budding virus membrane of influenza A viruses (IAV). Thereby, once IAV infect a host cell, FPR2 is activated. FPR2-signaling leads to an increase in viral replication, a dysregulation of the host immune response and a severe disease. Conversely, experiments using FPR2 antagonists in a preclinical model of IAV infections in mice showed that blocking FPR2 protects animals from lethal infections. Thus, FPR2 represents a very attractive host target against influenza. In this review we will give an overview on the pathogenesis of influenza with a focus on the role of FPR2 and we will discuss the advantages of using FPR2 antagonists to treat the flu.

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Articles

Overview of latest articles and publications on the Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in PubMed. PubMed is a service of the US National Library of Medicine that includes over 18 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals.