Influenza Virus Net is the web resource for anyone interested in influenza and flu pandemics. The objectives of Influenza Virus Net are to be the public and professional information resource for influenza and to serve as a network in the exchange of information and news related to influenza.
Influenza, commonly referred to as the flu, is an infectious disease caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses), that affects humans, birds and other mammals. The virus spreads easily from person to person. Influenza circulates worldwide and can affect anybody in any age group. Influenza causes annual epidemics that peak during winter in temperate regions. Influenza is a serious public health problem that causes severe illnesses and deaths for higher risk populations. The most common symptoms of the disease are chills, fever, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache, coughing, weakness/fatigue and general discomfort. Sore throat, fever and coughs are the most frequent symptoms. In more serious cases, influenza causes pneumonia, which can be fatal, particularly for the young and the elderly. An influenza epidemic can take an economic toll through lost workforce productivity, and strain health services. Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent infection.
- Flu season is here - York News-Times
Sat, 01 Nov 2014 05:42:
- Flu or Ebola? US hospitals prepare for a confusing season - The News International
Sat, 01 Nov 2014 05:38:
- Flu Vaccine Now Comes from Dog Kidney Cells - Youth Health Magzine
Sat, 01 Nov 2014 05:10:
- Google Flu Trends Resorts To Actual Data Because It Got It Wrong - Gizmodo Australia
Sat, 01 Nov 2014 05:02:
- Breaking down the flu shot - Port Huron Times Herald
Sat, 01 Nov 2014 04:55:
- Flu shots available countywide as season progresses - Hilton Head Island Packet
Sat, 01 Nov 2014 04:32:
- Flu shots available around the county - Reno Gazette Journal
Sat, 01 Nov 2014 04:15:
- Free Flu Shots Sacramento - Rocklin and Roseville Today
Sat, 01 Nov 2014 04:02:
- Unused Flu Vaccines Cost California Millions - NBC Bay Area
Sat, 01 Nov 2014 03:40:
- Five facts about flu season in Peel - Caledon Enterprise
Sat, 01 Nov 2014 03:31:
- PRO/AH/EDR> Avian influenza, human (111): Indonesia (Jakarta), H5N1
Thu, 30 Oct 2014 22:10:56
Avian Influenza H5N1 -- Jakarta Capital Region, Indonesia
Indonesia has reported 2 fatal cases of human infection with avian influenza virus A(H5N1). According to Liputan6.com, Jakarta Hospital Sardjito has reported a maximum of 2 patients diagnosed as avian influenza H5N1 cases. The 2 patients of Bantul origin diagnosed with bird flu have died. Consultant specialist pulmonary physicians said both patients had passed away on Saturday (25 Oct 2014). According to another hospital physician, both patients had been treated in isolation for about a week.
- Interim estimates of the effectiveness of seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in preventing influenza hospitalisations and primary care visits in Auckland, New Zealand, in 2014.
Turner N, Pierse N, Huang Q, et al. Interim estimates of the effectiveness of seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in preventing influenza hospitalisations and primary care visits in Auckland, New Zealand, in 2014. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]Euro Surveill 2014; 19(42)
- Live Adenovirus Type 4 Recombinants Induce Durable Neutralizing Antibody Responses to Influenza H5 with High Levels of Somatic Hypermutation in Humans.
Huang J, Kang B, Wheatley A, et al. Live Adenovirus Type 4 Recombinants Induce Durable Neutralizing Antibody Responses to Influenza H5 with High Levels of Somatic Hypermutation in Humans. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2014 Oct; 30(S1):A44.
- Surveillance snaphsot: influenza immunization among U.S. Armed Forces healthcare workers, August 2008-April 2014.
Surveillance snaphsot: influenza immunization among U.S. Armed Forces healthcare workers, August 2008-April 2014. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]MSMR 2014 Oct; 21(10):20.
- A Cross-Sectional Study of Avian Influenza in One District of Guangzhou, 2013.
Zhang H, Peng C, Duan X, et al. A Cross-Sectional Study of Avian Influenza in One District of Guangzhou, 2013. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]PLoS One 2014; 9(10):e111218.Since Feb, 2013, more than 100 human beings had been infected with novel H7N9 avian influenza virus. As of May 2013, several H7N9 viruses had been found in retail live bird markets (LBMs) in Guangdong province of southern China where several human cases were confirmed later. However, the real avian influenza virus infection status especially H7N9 in Guangzhou remains unclear. Therefore, a cross-sectional study of avian influenza in commercial poultry farms, the wholesale LBM and retail LBMs in one district of Guangzhou was conducted from October to November, 2013. A total of 1505 cloacal and environmental samples from 52 commercial poultry farms, 1 wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were collected and detected using real-time RT-PCR for type A, H7, H7N9 and H9 subtype avian influenza virus, respectively. Of all the flocks randomly sampled, 6 farms, 12 vendors of the wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were type A avian influenza virus positive with 0, 3 and 11 positive for H9, respectively. The pooled prevalence and individual prevalence of type A avian influenza virus were 33.9% and 7.9% which for H9 subtype was 7.6% and 1.6%, respectively. None was H7 and H7N9 subtype virus positive. Different prevalence and prevalence ratio were found in different poultry species with partridges having the highest prevalence for both type A and H9 subtype avian influenza virus. Our results suggest that LBM may have a higher risk for sustaining and transmission of avian influenza virus than commercial poultry farms. The present study also indicates that different species may play different roles in the evolution and transmission of avian influenza virus. Therefore, risk-based surveillance and management measures should be conducted in future in this area.
- CDC National Health Report: Leading Causes of Morbidity and Mortality and Associated Behavioral Risk and Protective Factors-United States, 2005-2013.
Johnson NB, Hayes LD, Brown K, et al. CDC National Health Report: Leading Causes of Morbidity and Mortality and Associated Behavioral Risk and Protective Factors-United States, 2005-2013. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]MMWR Surveill Summ 2014 Oct 31.:3-27.Problem: Although substantial progress has been made in improving the health of persons in the United States, serious problems remain to be solved. Life expectancy is increasing, and the rates of the leading causes of death are improving in many cases; however, numerous indicators (i.e., measures of observed or calculated data on the status of a condition) of the health and safety of the U.S. population remain poor. This report reviews population health in the United States and provides an assessment of recent progress in meeting high-priority health objectives. The health status indicators described in this report were selected because of their direct relation to the leading causes of death and other substantial sources of morbidity and mortality and should be the focus of prevention efforts. Reporting Period Covered: Data are reported starting in 2005 (or the earliest available year since 2005) through the current data year. Because data sources and specific indicators vary regarding when data are available, the most recent year for which data are available might range from 2010 to 2013. Description of the System: Data were obtained from 17 CDC surveys or surveillance systems and three non-CDC sources to provide a view of this particular point of time in the nation's health and trends in recent years. Data from the following CDC surveillance systems and surveys were used: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS); Emerging Infections Program/Active Bacterial Core surveillance (EIP/ABCs); Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet); Internet Panel Surveys: Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Health-Care Personnel and Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Pregnant Women; National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS); National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); National Health Interview Survey (NHIS); National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN); National HIV Surveillance System; National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS); National Immunization Survey (NIS); National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen); National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS); Nationally Notifiable STD Surveillance; National Vital Statistics System (NVSS); and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). Three non-CDC sources were used: the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau Monthly Statistical Releases; the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS); and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Results: Since 2005, life expectancy at birth in the U.S. has increased by 1 year; however, the number of persons who died prematurely was relatively constant. The years of potential life lost declined for eight of the 10 leading causes of death. Age-adjusted rates declined among all leading causes except deaths attributable to Alzheimer's disease and suicide, although the numbers of deaths increased for most causes. Heart disease, stroke, and deaths attributed to motor-vehicle injuries demonstrated notable declines since 2005. Numbers and rates increased for both Alzheimer's disease and suicide. The number of deaths from drug poisoning increased by approximately 11,000, and the number of deaths among older adults caused by falls increased by approximately 7,000. Risk and protective factors for these leading causes of death also showed mixed progress. Current smoking among adults remained stable at approximately 25% while smoking among youths declined to a record low of 15.7%. Obesity rates remained level at approximately 35% for adults and approximately 17% for youths. Approximately 21% of adults met recommended levels of physical activity, consistent with results recorded in the 3 previous years. Control of blood pressure and cholesterol increased to 46.3% and 29.5%, respectively. During the 2012-13 influenza season, vaccination rates reached highs of 72.0% for health-care personnel, 56.6% for children aged <17 years, 50.5% for pregnant women, and 41.5% for persons aged >18 years. Other important measures of the health of the U.S. population also varied. Rates of foodborne illness varied from year to year, with average annual increases for Salmonella and Salmonella serotype Enteritidis. Listeria rates were stable in recent years at 0.26 cases per 100,000 population. Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O157 increased during the past 3 years to a rate of 1.15 cases per 100,000 population, even though the annual change for the study period noted an average decline overall. Health-care-associated infections declined, on average, for central-line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI), surgical site infections (SSI), and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. The percentage of persons living with HIV who know their serostatus increased to 84.2%, but trends fluctuated for the number of new HIV infections and the rate of HIV transmission among adolescents and adults. Chlamydia rates increased by an average of 3.3% per year for persons aged 15-19 years and by 4.9% per year for women aged 20-24 years. The number of new cases of hepatitis C and hepatitis C-associated deaths increased by an average of 6.4% and 6.0% per year. Indictors of maternal and child health all improved, including historically low rates of infant mortality (6.1 per 1,000 live births) and teen births (26.6 per 1,000 female population). The percentage of infants breastfed at 6 months increased to 49.4%. Among children aged 19-35 months, 70.4% received the set of universally recommended vaccines, an increase of 2.9% from the previous year. Interpretation: The findings in this report indicate that progress has been steady but slow for many of the priority health issues in the United States. The age-adjusted rates for most of the leading causes of death are declining, but in some cases, the number of deaths is increasing, in part reflecting the growing U.S. population. Several protective factors that have registered substantial average increases (e.g., physical activity among adults, high blood pressure control, and human papillomavirus vaccination among adolescent females) have stalled in recent years. Many protective factors, even those with impressive relative gains, still represent only a minority of the U.S. population (e.g., control of high cholesterol at 29.5%). More data are needed to properly interpret fluctuating trends, such as those observed with the number of HIV infections and HIV transmission rates. Finally, some indicators of disease that appear to be increasing, such as chlamydia and hepatitis C, reflect increased efforts to engage in targeted screening but also suggest that the actual burden of infection is much greater than the reported data alone indicate. Public Health Action: Although not all-inclusive, this compilation highlights important health concerns, points to areas in which important success has been achieved, and highlights areas in which more effort is needed. By tracking progress, public health officials, program managers, and decision makers can better identify areas for improvement and institute policies and programs to improve health and the quality of life.
- Estimation of the population size of Canadian commercial poultry farms by log-linear capture-recapture analysis.
El Allaki F, Christensen J, Vallières A, et al. Estimation of the population size of Canadian commercial poultry farms by log-linear capture-recapture analysis. [Journal Article]Can J Vet Res 2014 Oct; 78(4):267-73.The objective of this study was to estimate the population size of Canadian poultry farms in 3 subpopulations (British Columbia, Ontario, and Other) by poultry category. We used data for 2008 to 2011 from the Canadian Notifiable Avian Influenza (NAI) Surveillance System (CanNAISS). Log-linear capture-recapture models were applied to estimate the number of commercial chicken and turkey farms. The estimated size of farm populations was validated by comparing sizes to data provided by the Canadian poultry industry in 2007, which were assumed to be complete and exhaustive. Our results showed that the log-linear modelling approach was an appropriate tool to estimate the population size of Canadian commercial chicken and turkey farms. The 2007 farm population size for each poultry category was included in the 95% confidence intervals of the farm population size estimates. Log-linear capture-recapture modelling might be useful for estimating the number of farms using surveillance data when no comprehensive registry exists.
- Systems engineering methods for enhancing the value stream in public health preparedness: the role of markov models, simulation, and optimization.
Yaylali E, Ivy JS, Taheri J Systems engineering methods for enhancing the value stream in public health preparedness: the role of markov models, simulation, and optimization. [Journal Article]Public Health Rep 2014.:145-53.Large-scale incidents such as the 2009 H1N1 outbreak, the 2011 European Escherichia coli outbreak, and Hurricane Sandy demonstrate the need for continuous improvement in emergency preparation, alert, and response systems globally. As questions relating to emergency preparedness and response continue to rise to the forefront, the field of industrial and systems engineering (ISE) emerges, as it provides sophisticated techniques that have the ability to model the system, simulate, and optimize complex systems, even under uncertainty.We applied three ISE techniques-Markov modeling, operations research (OR) or optimization, and computer simulation-to public health emergency preparedness.We present three models developed through a four-year partnership with stakeholders from state and local public health for effectively, efficiently, and appropriately responding to potential public health threats: (1) an OR model for optimal alerting in response to a public health event, (2) simulation models developed to respond to communicable disease events from the perspective of public health, and (3) simulation models for implementing pandemic influenza vaccination clinics representative of clinics in operation for the 2009-2010 H1N1 vaccinations in North Carolina.The methods employed by the ISE discipline offer powerful new insights to understand and improve public health emergency preparedness and response systems. The models can be used by public health practitioners not only to inform their planning decisions but also to provide a quantitative argument to support public health decision making and investment.
- Media Use and Communication Inequalities in a Public Health Emergency: A Case Study of 2009-2010 Pandemic Influenza A Virus Subtype H1N1.
Lin L, Jung M, McCloud RF, et al. Media Use and Communication Inequalities in a Public Health Emergency: A Case Study of 2009-2010 Pandemic Influenza A Virus Subtype H1N1. [Journal Article]Public Health Rep 2014.:49-60.Studies have shown that differences among individuals and social groups in accessing and using information on health and specific threats have an impact on their knowledge and behaviors. These differences, characterized as communication inequalities, may hamper the strength of a society's response to a public health emergency. Such inequalities not only make vulnerable populations subject to a disproportionate burden of adversity, but also compromise the public health system's efforts to prevent and respond to pandemic influenza outbreaks. We investigated the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) and health communication behaviors (including barriers) on people's knowledge and misconceptions about pandemic influenza A(H1N1) (pH1N1) and adoption of prevention behaviors.The data for this study came from a survey of 1,569 respondents drawn from a nationally representative sample of American adults during pH1N1. We conducted logistic regression analyses when appropriate.We found that (1) SES has a significant association with barriers to information access and processing, levels of pH1N1-related knowledge, and misconceptions; (2) levels of pH1N1-related knowledge are associated positively with the adoption of recommended prevention measures and negatively with the adoption of incorrect protective behaviors; and (3) people with higher SES, higher news exposure, and higher levels of pH1N1-related knowledge, as well as those who actively seek information, are less likely than their counterparts to adopt incorrect prevention behaviors.Strategic public health communication efforts in public health preparedness and during emergencies should take into account potential communication inequalities and develop campaigns that reach across different social groups.
- Changes in Immunization Program Managers' Perceptions of Programs' Functional Capabilities During and After Vaccine Shortages and pH1N1.
Moriarty LF, Omer SB, Seib K, et al. Changes in Immunization Program Managers' Perceptions of Programs' Functional Capabilities During and After Vaccine Shortages and pH1N1. [Journal Article]Public Health Rep 2014.:42-8.We surveyed U.S. immunization program managers (IPMs) as part of a project to improve public health preparedness against future emergencies by leveraging the immunization system. We examined immunization program policy and Immunization Information System (IIS) functionality changes as a result of the Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) vaccine shortage and pandemic influenza A(H1N1) (pH1N1). Evaluating changes in immunization program functionalities and policies following emergency response situations will assist in planning for future vaccine-related emergencies.We administered three consecutive surveys to IPMs from 64 state, city, and territorial jurisdictions in 2009, 2010, and 2012. We compared IPMs' responses across either two or three years (e.g., changes in response or consistent responses across years) using McNemar's test.Immunization programs maintained increases in functionality related to communication systems with health-care providers during this period. Immunization programs often did not maintain changes to IIS functionalities made from 2009 to 2010 (e.g., identifying high-risk and priority populations, tracking adverse events, and mapping disease risk) in the post-pandemic period (2010-2012). About half of IPMs reporting additional IIS functionality in identifying high-risk populations from 2009 to 2010 reported no longer having this function in 2012. There was an 18% decline in respondents reporting geographic information systems risk-mapping capability in IIS from 2010 to 2012.Because of the Hib vaccine shortage and pH1N1, immunization program needs and efforts changed to address evolving situations. The lack of sustained increases in resources or system functions after the pandemic highlights the need for comprehensive, sustainable public health emergency preparedness systems and related resources.
- How Low Is the Risk of Influenza A(H5N1) Infection?
Morens DM, Taubenberger JK How Low Is the Risk of Influenza A(H5N1) Infection? [EDITORIAL]J Infect Dis 2014 Oct 29.