Influenza Virus Net is the web resource for anyone interested in influenza and flu pandemics. The objectives of Influenza Virus Net are to be the public and professional information resource for influenza and to serve as a network in the exchange of information and news related to influenza.
Influenza, commonly referred to as the flu, is an infectious disease caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses), that affects humans, birds and other mammals. The virus spreads easily from person to person. Influenza circulates worldwide and can affect anybody in any age group. Influenza causes annual epidemics that peak during winter in temperate regions. Influenza is a serious public health problem that causes severe illnesses and deaths for higher risk populations. The most common symptoms of the disease are chills, fever, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache, coughing, weakness/fatigue and general discomfort. Sore throat, fever and coughs are the most frequent symptoms. In more serious cases, influenza causes pneumonia, which can be fatal, particularly for the young and the elderly. An influenza epidemic can take an economic toll through lost workforce productivity, and strain health services. Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent infection.
- Nasal Spray Flu Vaccine in Kids Can Trim Caseload And Be Cost-Effective ... - DigitalJournal.com
Sun, 31 Aug 2014 07:14:
- China Human Vaccine Industry (Hepatitis B, Influenza, Rabies & Pneumonia ... - PR Newswire UK (press release)
Sun, 31 Aug 2014 05:37:
- How does Fluzone High-Dose differ from other flu vaccines? - Yumanewsnow
Sun, 31 Aug 2014 02:22:
- Flu knocks Sweetland out of triathlon final - Edmonton Journal
Sun, 31 Aug 2014 00:34:
- Nuclear localized Influenza nucleoprotein N-terminal deletion mutant is deficient ... - 7thSpace Interactive (press release)
Sun, 31 Aug 2014 00:14:
- Elderberry has been found to fight cold and flu symptoms. - The Raw Food World News
Sat, 30 Aug 2014 15:51:
- Canine Influenza Cases Spreading In Manhattan - Gothamist
Sat, 30 Aug 2014 15:51:
- Pupils offered vaccine to keep flu bug at bay - Linlithgow Journal & Gazette
Sat, 30 Aug 2014 13:55:
- Flu season is sneaking up on us a little early - WXII The Triad
Sat, 30 Aug 2014 13:07:
- Characterization of an H4N2 influenza virus from Quails with a multibasic motif in ... - poultrymed
Sat, 30 Aug 2014 07:17:
- PRO/EDR> Influenza (25): WHO global update
Sat, 30 Aug 2014 17:26:15
Influenza -- Worldwide
Globally influenza activity continued to increase in the southern hemisphere, and remained low elsewhere.
- In Europe and North America, overall influenza activity remained at inter-seasonal levels.
- In Africa and western Asia, influenza activity was low.
- In eastern Asia, influenza activity reached inter-seasonal levels in most countries with influenza A(H3N2) and influenza B virus predominating. Influenza A(H3N2) activity continued in south China.
- In the southern
- PRO/AH/EDR> Avian influenza (68): USA (NJ) poultry, LPAI, H7, OIE
Fri, 29 Aug 2014 23:23:38
Avian Influenza -- Salem County, New Jersey, United States
Information received on [and dated] 27 Aug 2014 from Dr John Clifford, Deputy Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, USA
Report type: immediate notification
Date of start of the event: 22 Aug 2014
Date of pre-confirmation of the event: 22 Aug 2014
Reason for notification: reoccurrence of a listed disease
Date of previous occurrence: 10 Jul 2014
Manifestation of disease: sub-clinical disease
- Psychedelic N,N-Dimethyltryptamine and 5-Methoxy-N,N-Dimethyltryptamine Modulate Innate and Adaptive Inflammatory Responses through the Sigma-1 Receptor of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells.
Szabo A, Kovacs A, Frecska E, et al. Psychedelic N,N-Dimethyltryptamine and 5-Methoxy-N,N-Dimethyltryptamine Modulate Innate and Adaptive Inflammatory Responses through the Sigma-1 Receptor of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]PLoS One 2014; 9(8):e106533.The orphan receptor sigma-1 (sigmar-1) is a transmembrane chaperone protein expressed in both the central nervous system and in immune cells. It has been shown to regulate neuronal differentiation and cell survival, and mediates anti-inflammatory responses and immunosuppression in murine in vivo models. Since the details of these findings have not been elucidated so far, we studied the effects of the endogenous sigmar-1 ligands N,N-dimethyltryptamine (NN-DMT), its derivative 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) and the synthetic high affinity sigmar-1 agonist PRE-084 hydrochloride on human primary monocyte-derived dendritic cell (moDCs) activation provoked by LPS, polyI:C or pathogen-derived stimuli to induce inflammatory responses. Co-treatment of moDC with these activators and sigma-1 receptor ligands inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα and the chemokine IL-8, while increased the secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. The T-cell activating capacity of moDCs was also inhibited, and dimethyltryptamines used in combination with E. coli or influenza virus as stimulators decreased the differentiation of moDC-induced Th1 and Th17 inflammatory effector T-cells in a sigmar-1 specific manner as confirmed by gene silencing. Here we demonstrate for the first time the immunomodulatory potential of NN-DMT and 5-MeO-DMT on human moDC functions via sigmar-1 that could be harnessed for the pharmacological treatment of autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory conditions of the CNS or peripheral tissues. Our findings also point out a new biological role for dimethyltryptamines, which may act as systemic endogenous regulators of inflammation and immune homeostasis through the sigma-1 receptor.
- Modeling the Dynamics and Migratory Pathways of Virus-Specific Antibody-Secreting Cell Populations in Primary Influenza Infection.
Miao H, Sangster MY, Livingstone AM, et al. Modeling the Dynamics and Migratory Pathways of Virus-Specific Antibody-Secreting Cell Populations in Primary Influenza Infection. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]PLoS One 2014; 9(8):e104781.The B cell response to influenza infection of the respiratory tract contributes to viral clearance and establishes profound resistance to reinfection by related viruses. Numerous studies have measured virus-specific antibody-secreting cell (ASC) frequencies in different anatomical compartments after influenza infection and provided a general picture of the kinetics of ASC formation and dispersion. However, the dynamics of ASC populations are difficult to determine experimentally and have received little attention. Here, we applied mathematical modeling to investigate the dynamics of ASC growth, death, and migration over the 2-week period following primary influenza infection in mice. Experimental data for model fitting came from high frequency measurements of virus-specific IgM, IgG, and IgA ASCs in the mediastinal lymph node (MLN), spleen, and lung. Model construction was based on a set of assumptions about ASC gain and loss from the sampled sites, and also on the directionality of ASC trafficking pathways. Most notably, modeling results suggest that differences in ASC fate and trafficking patterns reflect the site of formation and the expressed antibody class. Essentially all early IgA ASCs in the MLN migrated to spleen or lung, whereas cell death was likely the major reason for IgM and IgG ASC loss from the MLN. In contrast, the spleen contributed most of the IgM and IgG ASCs that migrated to the lung, but essentially none of the IgA ASCs. This finding points to a critical role for regional lymph nodes such as the MLN in the rapid generation of IgA ASCs that seed the lung. Results for the MLN also suggest that ASC death is a significant early feature of the B cell response. Overall, our analysis is consistent with accepted concepts in many regards, but it also indicates novel features of the B cell response to influenza that warrant further investigation.
- Infection of influenza virus NA vaccinated mice with homologous influenza virus leads to strong protection against heterologous influenza viruses.
He B, Chang H, Liu Z, et al. Infection of influenza virus NA vaccinated mice with homologous influenza virus leads to strong protection against heterologous influenza viruses. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]J Gen Virol 2014 Aug 28.Vaccination is the best measure to prevent influenza pandemics. Here we studied the protective effect against heterologous influenza viruses, including A/reassortant/NYMC X-179A (pH1N1), A/chicken/Henan/12/2004 (H5N1), A/Chicken/Jiangsu/7/2002 (H9N2) and A/Guizhou/54/89xA/PR/8/34 (A/Guizhou-X) (H3N2), in mice first vaccinated with a DNA vaccine of hemagglutinin (HA) or neuraminidase (NA) of A/PR/8/34 (PR8) and then infected with the homologous virus. We showed that PR8 HA or NA vaccination both protected mice against a lethal dose of the homologous virus; PR8 HA or NA vaccination and then PR8 infection in mice respectively offered poor or excellent protection against a second, heterologous influenza virus challenge. In addition,before the second heterologous influenza infection, the highest antibody level against the NP, M1 and M2 was found in PR8 NA DNA vaccinated and PR8 infected group. The level of induced cellular immunity against NP and M1 showed a trend consistent with that seen in antibody levels. However,PR8HA+NA and then PR8 infection resulted in limited protection against heterologous influenza virus challenges. Results of the present study demonstrated that infection of the homologous influenza virus in mice already immunized with a NA vaccine could provide excellent protection against subsequent infection of a heterologous influenza virus. These findings suggest that NA, a major antigen of influenza virus, could be an important candidate antigen for universal influenza vaccines.
- Post-infectious immune suppression: A new paradigm of severe infections.
Grimaldi D, Llitjos JF, Pène F Post-infectious immune suppression: A new paradigm of severe infections. [REVIEW]Med Mal Infect 2014 Aug 25.Infectious diseases remain a major public health issue in both developing and developed countries. For instance, there is still a high rate of morbidity and mortality due to seasonal influenza outbreaks and severe bacterial sepsis, despite major advances in their prevention and treatment. It is now clear that severe influenza and bacterial infections promote susceptibility for superinfections worsening the prognosis. Various immune defects acquired during severe infection may result in complex immunosuppression and may affect both innate and adaptive components. Some animal models of these common clinical situations have demonstrated the increased susceptibility of infected hosts to secondary infectious insult and allowed assessing the regulatory mechanisms. Such pathophysiological advances may help create new immunomodulatory therapeutics for infected patients exposed to severe secondary sepsis.
- Additional treatment with clarithromycin reduces fever duration in patients with influenza.
Higashi F, Kubo H, Yasuda H, et al. Additional treatment with clarithromycin reduces fever duration in patients with influenza. [Journal Article]Respir Investig 2014 Sep; 52(5):302-9.Influenza virus infection-induced inflammatory responses are associated with fever and other symptoms. Although macrolide antibiotics (macrolides) provide anti-inflammatory effects, these effects have not been well studied in influenza patients.We examined the effects of clarithromycin on influenza symptoms. A randomized, prospective, and open-label study was performed between December 2010 and March 2011 and between December 2012 and March 2013 in patients with pandemic A/H1 2009 influenza or seasonal influenza virus infections. Patients aged >15 years received either neuraminidase inhibitors (control group) or clarithromycin plus neuraminidase inhibitors (clarithromycin group). Body temperature and other symptoms were recorded for 5 days after initiating treatment. Serum interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 levels were also measured.Herein, 79 patients were enrolled over the two influenza seasons, and data from 63 patients were analyzed. All patients showed fever and other symptoms, including rhinorrhea (n=38), cough (n=50), sore throat (n=39), arthralgia or myalgia (n=46), and general malaise (n=50). Fever duration was approximately 42% shorter in patients with temperatures ≥38.5°C (p=0.02), decreasing from 42h to 24h. Among patients with pandemic influenza infections (n=20), the rhinorrhea improvement rate was higher in the clarithromycin group (p=0.03; 88% vs. 20%). Serum IL-6 levels decreased 5 days after treatment, but no differences between the two groups were detected.Clarithromycin may have the additional clinical benefit of improving fever, the main symptom of influenza, in patients treated with neuraminidase inhibitors.
- Mortality and severity evaluation by routine pneumonia prediction models among Japanese patients with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia.
Fujikura Y, Kawano S, Kouzaki Y, et al. Mortality and severity evaluation by routine pneumonia prediction models among Japanese patients with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia. [Journal Article]Respir Investig 2014 Sep; 52(5):280-7.Influenza-related pneumonia, referred to as influenza pneumonia, was reported relatively more frequently during a recent influenza pandemic in 2009. The validity of adapting routine pneumonia severity prediction models for various types of pneumonia is unclear.We conducted a nationwide survey to evaluate influenza pneumonia among adult patients in Japan. Questionnaires were sent to physicians working in departments of respiratory medicine at 2491 hospitals. Both the outcome and pneumonia severity, using invasive positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) as an indicator, were evaluated by routine pneumonia severity index (PSI), CURB-65 (confusion, urea, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and age≥65 years), and A-DROP (age, dehydration, respiration, disorientation, and blood pressure).Data collected from 320 patients with influenza pneumonia, including 25 cases (7.8%) of death and 43 (13.4%) of IPPV, were analyzed. Although all routine prediction models showed that higher mortality tended to be associated with a higher risk class/grade, the actual mortality rates were higher than predicted. The risk class of mortality calculated by the PSI was influenced by pneumonia patterns. Although pneumonia severity was similarly predicted, the types of pneumonia also affected severity in all prediction models. A-DROP showed the highest accuracy on receiver operating characteristic analysis for both mortality and severity.CURB-65 and A-DROP are fair predictors of mortality regardless of pneumonia patterns. However, the current pneumonia prediction models may underestimate the severity and appropriate site of care for patients with influenza pneumonia.
- Efficacy and safety of a booster dose of influenza vaccination in solid organ transplant recipients, TRANSGRIPE 1-2: study protocol for a multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial.
Martinez-Atienza J, Rosso-Fernández C, Roca C, et al. Efficacy and safety of a booster dose of influenza vaccination in solid organ transplant recipients, TRANSGRIPE 1-2: study protocol for a multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]Trials 2014 Aug 28; 15(1):338.Despite administration of annual influenza vaccination, influenza-associated complications in transplant recipients continue to be an important cause of hospitalization and death. Although influenza vaccination has been proven to be the most effective measure to reduce influenza infection after transplantation, transplant recipients are still vulnerable to influenza infections, with lower serological responses to vaccination compared to the general population. In order to assess the efficacy and safety of an alternative immunization scheme for solid organ transplant recipients, the TRANSGRIPE1-2Study Group aimed to test a booster dose administration 5 weeks after the standard vaccination. The primary objective of this trial was to compare short-term and long-term neutralizing antibody immunogenicity of a booster dose of influenza vaccination to the standard single-dose immunization scheme. Secondary objectives included the evaluation of the efficacy and/or safety, cellular immune response, incidence of influenza infection, graft rejection, retransplant and mortality rates.This phase III, randomized, controlled, open-label clinical trialwas conducted between October 2012 and December 2013 in 12 Spanish public referral hospitals. Solid organ transplant recipients (liver, kidney, heart or lung), older than16 years of agemore than 30 days after transplantation were eligible to participate. Patients (N = 508) were stratified 1:1 by center, type of organ and time after transplantationand who either received the standard singledose (n = 254) or were treated according to a novel influenza vaccination schedule comprising the administration of a booster dose5weeks after standard vaccination (n = 254). Seroconversion rates were measured as a determinant of protection against influenza (main outcome). Efficacy and safety outcomes were followed until 1 year after influenza vaccinationwith assessment of short-term (0, 5, 10 and 15 weeks) and long-term (12 months) results. Intention-to-treat, per-protocol and safety analyses will be performed.This trial will increase knowledge about the safety and efficacy of a booster dose of influenza vaccine in solid organ transplant recipients. At the time the manuscript was submitted for publication, trial recruitment was closed with a total of 499 participants included during a 2-month period (within the seasonal influenza vaccination campaign). Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01761435 (registered 13December2012). EudraCT Identifier: 2011-003243-21 (registered 4July2011).
- Influenza polymerase encoding mRNAs utilize atypical mRNA nuclear export.
Larsen S, Bui S, Perez V, et al. Influenza polymerase encoding mRNAs utilize atypical mRNA nuclear export. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]Virol J 2014 Aug 28; 11(1):154.Influenza is a segmented negative strand RNA virus. Each RNA segment is encapsulated by influenza nucleoprotein and bound by the viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) to form viral ribonucleoproteins responsible for RNA synthesis in the nucleus of the host cell. Influenza transcription results in spliced mRNAs (M2 and NS2), intron-containing mRNAs (M1 and NS1), and intron-less mRNAs (HA, NA, NP, PB1, PB2, and PA), all of which undergo nuclear export into the cytoplasm for translation. Most cellular mRNA nuclear export is Nxf1-mediated, while select mRNAs utilize Crm1.Here we inhibited Nxf1 and Crm1 nuclear export prior to infection with influenza A/Udorn/307/1972(H3H2) virus and analyzed influenza intron-less mRNAs using cellular fractionation and reverse transcription - quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). We examined direct interaction between Nxf1 and influenza intron-less mRNAs using immuno purification of Nxf1 and RT-PCR of associated RNA.Inhibition of Nxf1 resulted in less influenza intron-less mRNA export into the cytoplasm for HA and NA influenza mRNAs in both human embryonic kidney cell line (293 T) and human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line (A549). However, in 293 T cells no change was observed for mRNAs encoding the components of the viral ribonucleoproteins; NP, PA, PB1, and PB2, while in A549 cells, only PA, PB1, and PB2 mRNAs, encoding the RdRP, remained unaffected; NP mRNA was reduced in the cytoplasm. In A549 cells NP, NA, HA, mRNAs were found associated with Nxf1 but PA, PB1, and PB2 mRNAs were not. Crm1 inhibition also resulted in no significant difference in PA, PB1, and PB2 mRNA nuclear export.These results further confirm Nxf1-mediated nuclear export is functional during the influenza life cycle and hijacked for select influenza mRNA nuclear export. We reveal a cell type difference for Nxf1-mediated nuclear export of influenza NP mRNA, a reminder that cell type can influence molecular mechanisms. Importantly, we conclude that in both A549 and 293 T cells, PA, PB1, and PB2 mRNA nuclear export is Nxf1 and Crm1 independent. Our data support the hypothesis that PA, PB1, and PB2 mRNAs, encoding the influenza RdRP, utilize atypical mRNA nuclear export.
- Influenza vaccination of Victorian healthcare workers: will a higher target increase vaccine uptake?
Wang D, Worth L, Bull A, et al. Influenza vaccination of Victorian healthcare workers: will a higher target increase vaccine uptake? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]Aust N Z J Public Health 2014 Aug 28.
- Autoimmune aspects of giant cell arteritis.
Nesher G Autoimmune aspects of giant cell arteritis. [Journal Article]Isr Med Assoc J 2014 Jul; 16(7):454-5.Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is considered to be a T cell-dependent disease. Autoantibodies have not consistently been found in GCA. The exception is antiphospholipid antibodies (APLA), which were found in 30-80% of GCA cases. Recently, efforts have been made to seek autoantibodies in GCA using newer methods of detection: serological identification of antigens by recombinant cDNA expression cloning, and a proteomic approach. In these studies, lamin C (a nuclear envelope antigen) was recognized by antibodies in 32% of GCA sera and none of the controls. Other autoantigenic proteins were also identified: lamin A, vinculin (a cytoskeleton antigen), and annexin 5 (an endothelial protein). In a recent study, 92% of 36 patients with GCA and/or polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) had autoantibodies to a human ferritin peptide (the heavy chain N-terminal); 89% had antibodies to bacterial ferritin peptide of Staphylococcus epidermidis. The significance of these findings needs to be studied further. GCA may be a part of the newly described ASIA syndrome (autoimmune syndrome induced by adjuvants). A recent study from Italy reported 10 cases of GCA/PMR within 3 months of influenza vaccination. These comprised 50% of all cases of GCA/PMR diagnosed during the 6 year period of the study. Another 11 cases of GCA following influenza vaccinations were reported. GCA pathogenesis involves all branches of the immune system, including antigen-presenting cells, T cells and B cells, and autoantibody formation is not uncommon. GCA etiology remains unknown, but may be associated with exposure to bacterial or viral antigens.